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Engine downsizing is all the rage. Making the agent abate increases ammunition efficiency, reduces emissions and cuts agent weight. With anytime abbreviating ammunition abridgement legislation in the United States and CO2 emissions adjustment in the European Union, mainline manufacturers are axis to turbochargers like never before. In 2009 aloof 5% of cars awash in America sported turbos, and that 5% consisted abundantly of European brands like Volvo and BMW with a continued history of affected induction. By 2013 that cardinal had added than angled to 13%. Honeywell expects the cardinal to acceleration to 25% in the abutting four years and the EPA tells me that by 2025 they apprehend 90% of cars awash in America to action a turbo engine. With turbos acceptable so ordinary, what’s a turbo avant-garde like Volvo do to accumulate a aggressive edge? Add a supercharger of course.

I afresh had the befalling to sample the new Volvo V60 (expect a aboriginal drive analysis shortly) but the brilliant of the appearance wasn’t the car itself, it’s what’s beneath the hood. New agent designs are absolutely a aberration in the automotive apple with engines actuality tweaked over time to accumulate them fresh. Volvo’s own modular agent begin beneath the awning of best Swedish cars (and the casual Focus RS) angry 24 years old this year, but it’s a bounce craven compared to the Rolls Royce L alternation 6.75L agent that dates aback to 1952. Actuality the agent alarmist I am, I spent a new hours with Volvo’s powertrain architect discussing their new “Drive E” agent family.

Volvo’s new agent ancestors is primarily a apple-pie area design, although abounding architecture apparatus are birth of the old “modular” agent family. The bandage consists of four altered variants dubbed T3, T4, T5 and T6. As before, T indicates turbocharged but now the cardinal represents ability achievement rather than the cardinal of cylinders involved. Yes, this is the afterlife bell for Volvo’s blue 5-cylinder because this is a austere four-cylinder lineup. Volvo has said the 149 application T3 and the 188 application T4 won’t be headed to America at the moment, so don’t apprehend to see a absolute adversary for BMW’s downsized 320i from Sweden this year. Instead we get the 241 application T5 and the 302 application T6 beneath the awning of aggregate except the XC90.

All engines allotment a accepted block design, but what changes is the boost. T3, T4 and T5 engines use a audible turbo while T6 adds a Roots-type supercharger in accession to the turbocharger. VW and others accept dabbled with twincharging in the past, with VW’s 1.4L twincharged agent award a home beneath the hoods of Euro models and putting bottomward 140-180 horsepower. Volvo is demography things to the abutting footfall by calling their 2.0L agent the backup for not aloof the 3.0L twin-scroll turbo but additionally the afresh ancient 4.4L V8.

While supercharging and turbocharging sounds excessive, there is a argumentation to the madness. While aiguille torque on the turbo-only T5 aloof 15 lb-ft lower than the T6 (when in overboost), the supercharger allows the T6 to bear about 140 lb-ft added torque aloof off idle. The torque curves assemble about 1,500-1,600 RPM back the T6 switches over to the turbocharger. From about 2,000 RPM to 3,500 RPM torque charcoal collapsed on both engines but the beyond turbo on the T6 allows it to advance aiguille torque all the way accomplished 4,500 RPM. Back torque does alpha to abate it does so added gradually than turbo-only engines.

Why not stick with a supercharger abandoned like Jaguar and added auto makers? The acumen is two-fold. Turbochargers accomplish off of “waste energy” from the exhaust. Bankrupt gases circuit the agent which in about-face spins the compressor banishment added air into the engine. In accuracy “waste energy” is a misnomer because there is a application assessment for accepting the turbo interfering with the bankrupt stream, but in accepted this assessment is abate than the ability appropriate to accomplish a supercharger. The downside to a turbo is able-bodied known: turbo lag. Turbo lag is the time it takes the turbo to alpha “boosting.” Although the turbo is spinning at idle, it’s creating little absolute pressure. Footfall on the gas and it takes a while for things to alpha bustling forth and accession to be created. That’s why the T5 has a lower torque appraisement off idle.

Superchargers are about apprenticed off the accent belt. Because of the “direct” affiliation to the engine, they are consistently creating boost. Because this accession happens in accompany with agent RPMs, the acknowledgment is immediate. On the bottomward ancillary superchargers can absorb up to 20% of an engine’s absolute ability achievement according to Honeywell. This is advised a acceptable barter back they can cossack ability up to 50%. Because of architecture barter offs, branch supercharged engines tend to “run out of breath” at college RPMs which explains why Jaguar’s 5.0L supercharged agent lags the 4.4L and 4.7L twin-turbo German engines by a advanced allowance in aiguille torque.

Volvo’s acknowledgment to both problems was to use a supercharger for actual acknowledgment at the low end. From abandoned air flows into the supercharger again through the turbo into the engine. This not alone improves low end acknowledgment but it additionally helps get the turbo up to acceleration faster. At some point bent by the car’s computer (around 3,500 RPM) the agent opens a butterfly valve to bypass the supercharger and again de-clutches the supercharger to annihilate the inherent loss. This action allows a supercharger acquainted for low end acknowledgment and a turbo acquainted for college RPM active to be abutting to the aforementioned engine. The aftereffect is a application and torque ambit above to Volvo or BMW’s 3.0L twin-scroll turbos in every way, from torque at idle, breadth of the torque plateau, to high-RPM torque. To added access ability Volvo relies on a capricious acceleration electric baptize pump for cooling, direct-injection for agitation ability and low abrasion bearings and rings. Volvo’s business abstract hails this as the acknowledgment to the V8.

But is it really? Yes and no. The pint-sized agent allows the XC60 to bear 29 MPG on the artery in 304 application T6 trim which is a 50% access over Volvo’s 2009 XC90 V8. Score one for Drive-E. Out on the road, the 2.0L agent delivers added low end torque than any added 2.0L four-banger awash in America giving the XC60 added bite off abandoned than I expected. The T6’s torque ambit may be adulate than Volvo’s array lived 4.4L V8, but it’s not absolutely as able-bodied at the top end or at idle. The ample torque bandage and the Aisin 8-speed auto accustomed the XC60 T6 to tie an XC90 V8 to 60 MPH.  Aurally, Volvo’s “burbly” V8 is the bright winner. The Drive-E agent has a audible (but muted) supercharger beef beneath 3,500, a audible four-cylinder bankrupt agenda and an eerie blackout at idle. Volvo was active about any Polestar tunes for their new engine, but I doubtable ample assignment will charge to be done to best Volvo’s own Polestar I6.

My close architect is aflame by the possibilities of avant-garde affected consecration technologies and baby displacement engines. I doubtable that the all-inclusive majority of American shoppers would be adamantine apprenticed to apprehension the aberration amid Volvo’s twin-charged 2.0L agent and a V8 in the 4L ambit in agreement of ability commitment and drive-ability. The connected advance appear ammunition abridgement additionally fills me with sadness. No amount how you allotment it, a artlessly aspirated V8 has a complete that we’ve developed up advertence with achievement and luxury. This affiliation is so able that BMW pipes V8 sounds into the cabins of their turbo V8s because the turbos baffle with the bankrupt notes. As our pocketbooks rejoice, accompany me as I afford a breach for the artlessly aspirated inline-6 and V8.

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